Knowledge of auto parts

Ignition system is a common fault,ignition system maintenance matters needing attention

Car ignition system is the ignition engine in order to work normally, according to the ignition order of each cylinder, regularly supply spark plug with high enough energy of high voltage (about 15000 ~ 30000V), so that the spark plug produce enough strong spark, ignite the combustible mixture.

Note for ignition system maintenance

1.When the engine is starting and working, do not touch the ignition coil high voltage wire by hand to avoid receiving electric shock.
2.When checking the fault of the ignition system circuit, do not use the way of scraping fire to check the circuit on and off, otherwise it is easy to damage the electronic components.Whether the circuit is on or off should be measured and judged by the multimeter electrical blocking.
3.When conducting high voltage test, it is better to clamp the high voltage wire with insulated rubber clamp to carry out the test. It is easy to cause electric shock when touching the high voltage wire directly by hand.Another way to avoid shock is to insert the high-voltage wire into a spare spark plug, then wire the spark plug case and see if the spark plug electrodes jump.Take care to avoid damaging the electronic ignition controller due to overvoltage.
4.Do not connect or disconnect the line while the ignition switch is on.To avoid burning out the electronic components in the controller.
5.Before removing the battery, make sure the ignition switch and all other electrical equipment are turned off.
6.When installing the battery, must distinguish the positive and negative pole, must not connect wrong, the connection of the battery pole column and the line clip must be firm, otherwise easy to damage the electronic equipment.
7.When using the dry battery to simulate the ignition signal to check the electronic ignition controller, the measurement action should be fast, and the duration of the dry battery connection should generally not exceed 5s.
8. Hall effect electronic ignition system may produce high voltage discharge during inspection and maintenance, causing accidental damage to human body and the ignition system itself. Therefore, the following points must be paid attention to:
(1) Before carrying out any inspection or maintenance, the power should be cut off;
(2) When external power supply is used for maintenance, the voltage shall be strictly limited to no more than 16V.When the voltage reaches 16 ~ 16.5V, the switching time is not allowed to reach or exceed 1 min
(3) When the car equipped with hall effect electronic ignition system is dragged, the ignition power should be cut off first;
(4) The negative terminal of ignition coil is not allowed to be connected with the capacitor;
(5) any conditions, only allowed to use the value of 1 k Ω rotor arm, preventing electromagnetic interference of 1 k Ω damping resistance shall not replace with other resistance value of resistance, the spark plug plug Ω resistance should be in 1 ~ 5 k.

Ignition system is a common fault,ignition system maintenance matters needing attention
 
Fault analysis and elimination method of ignition system
1.The ignition was not on time
(1) Fault phenomenon
The engine is not easy to start and the idle speed is unstable;Engine power is insufficient, water temperature is high;Engines are prone to detonation.
(2) Fault cause
Bad crankshaft position sensor or incorrect mounting position.
(3) Fault diagnosis and troubleshooting
The main components that affect engine ignition timing misalignment are the ignition reference sensor and crankshaft position sensor. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the signal rotor is deformed or skewed, whether the signal acquisition and output parts are installed improperly, and whether the clearance of the device is appropriate.
2.No high pressure fire in the ignition system
(1) Fault phenomenon
Switch on the ignition switch, the starter can drive the engine crankshaft operation, ignition system without high pressure fire.
(2) Fault cause
Crankshaft position sensor connection circuit short circuit or open circuit;
Poor performance of crankshaft position sensor;
The ignition control module fails or the wiring harness is loose, short circuit or open;
The primary winding of the ignition coil is broken;
The secondary winding of the ignition coil is broken.;
The high-voltage line is broken;
The spark plugs don't work well.
(3) Fault diagnosis and troubleshooting
Start the engine and check whether the warning light is lit. If it is lit, the fault code should be read by the fault decoder and the fault of the low-voltage circuit should be diagnosed according to the fault code.If the warning light is normal, check the high voltage circuit of the ignition system.Turn off the ignition switch, check whether the ignition coil is normal or not, and replace it if there is a fault.Unplug the crankshaft position sensor and measure the resistance value between the corresponding socket terminals with a multimeter. If the measured value does not meet the requirements, replace the crankshaft position sensor.The diagnostic flow chart is shown in Figure 1.
3.Spark plug failure
(1) Common faults of spark plugs
Spark plugs work under high temperature and high pressure, and by the corrosion of chemical additives in fuel oil, the working environment is harsh, therefore, its failure rate is high.There are several common faults with spark plugs.
spark plug fire damage, such as spark plug insulation creased, broken, electrode ablation, melting, etc., so that spark plug leakage or breakdown voltage increase, resulting in the engine fire or can not work;
spark plug sediments, spark plug sediments carbon, oil, ash, etc., so that spark plug leakage or breakdown voltage increase resulting in the engine fire or can not work;
The spark plug clearance is too large or too small, so that the ignition performance decline or break fire.
(2) Troubleshooting of spark plugs
Visual inspection of spark plug: check the appearance of the electrode and the insulator of the spark plug for any of the above faults.
The insulator skirt of spark plug in normal operation is light brown to gray white. Slight carbon accumulation and electrode ablation are normal phenomena. Common faults and treatment measures of spark plug are shown in Table 1.
4.The ignition system is out of fire
(1) Fault phenomenon
The engine quivered at idling after starting.
(2) Fault cause
There is no voltage or the voltage is too low at the primary end of the coil;
The ignition coil is not strong;
(3) The ignition resistance is too high and the cylinder line is broken;
The lapping circuit on the negative side of the primary winding of the ignition coil is not controlled by the ignition module on and off;
Crankshaft position sensor is damaged;
Ignition module or ECU is damaged.
Fault diagnosis and troubleshooting
Observe whether the ignition system has obvious abnormality;
Read the fault code with the diagnostic equipment;
test fire judgment;
Ignition coil power supply circuit detection;
Detection of ignition coil;
Inspection of crankshaft/camshaft position sensor;
Detection of ignition signal and ignition feedback signal.
5.Common faults of ignition coils
(1) Common faults affecting the ignition coil
Primary winding, secondary winding broken circuit.Short circuit between turns or winding lap iron;
Insulation aging, leakage;
The connection point of the internal conductor is in bad contact.
These failures in the ignition coil can result in:
No secondary voltage is generated, or the secondary voltage is too low to ignite;
although can jump fire, but due to the secondary voltage reduction, ignition energy and high speed fire break, lack of fire, so that the engine is not easy to start, idle speed instability, power decline, exhaust pollution increase.
(2) Fault inspection method
Ignition coil inspection, usually with a multimeter electrical barrier measured separately in the primary and secondary windings
Resistance, determine whether the winding short circuit and open circuit fault.If the measured resistance is infinite, it means that the winding has an open circuit fault;If the resistance is too large or too small then the winding has bad contact or short circuit.Whether the winding is iron-bound is identified by the resistance between the fire coil terminal and the ignition coil housing measured by a multimeter.The resistance is zero, indicating the winding lap iron.Some faults in the ignition coil are not always reflected in the way resistance is measured using a multimeter alone.For example, the insulation inside the ignition coil is aging or there are small cracks, which only cause leakage of electricity under high voltage, resulting in the secondary voltage drop, and insufficient ignition energy, which makes the engine work abnormal or not working.These faults can only be accurately identified by special instruments.
6.Individual cylinders do not ignite
(1) Fault phenomenon
After starting the engine, gradually increase the throttle, from low speed to high speed in the whole process of speed improvement can hear the exhaust muffler within the rhythm of the "rush, rush" sound, idle running engine jitter.
(2) Fault cause
Spark plug damage, ignition coil fault, no oil, oil pressure is not enough.
(3) Fault diagnosis and troubleshooting
First of all, check the ignition system.If a cylinder is not working, should unplug the cylinder high subsection line, about 5 ~ 7 mm from the spark plug, observe whether there is a fire, without fire, was removed from the engine spark plug, detect the spark plug gap is normal, electrode parts are in good condition, the fault is to replace spark plug, if the normal is to check whether there is fault, ignition coil, if not normal in ignition coil;
Check the fuel supply system.If the fuel
Insufficient supply will also cause the engine shake, the fuel pressure gauge connected in series into the pipeline, starting the engine to check the fuel pressure, respectively check the idle speed oil pressure, acceleration change oil pressure and the pressure after flameout.
7.Weak high voltage spark
(1) Fault phenomenon
During the fire jumping experiment, the high pressure spark is weak, the engine is difficult to start, the idle speed is unstable, the exhaust smoke is black, and the acceleration, medium and high speed are poor.
(2) Fault cause
The ignition controller and ignition coil are defective, the high voltage wire resistance is too large, the spark plug leakage or carbon accumulation, the ignition system supply voltage is insufficient or the iron is defective, etc.
(3) Fault diagnosis and troubleshooting
Check whether the ignition controller and ignition coil are in good working condition, whether the power supply voltage is normal, whether the connectors and wires are firmly connected, and whether the igniter strap is reliable.Remove the spark plug and replace the leaking spark plug.
8.Ignition performance varies with operating conditions
(1) Fault phenomenon
Low speed working normal, high speed stall;Normal when the temperature is low, abnormal when the temperature is high;At the beginning of normal, work for a period of time after the failure.
(2) Fault cause
Ignition reference sensor and crankshaft Angle and speed sensor are loose;Poor contact of circuit connection devices;, poor thermal stability of igniter;Local damage or breakdown of ignition wire, high voltage wire resistance is too large.
(3) Fault diagnosis and troubleshooting
Check whether the installation of all relevant parts is loose, whether the circuit connection is firm and reliable, whether the igniter and ignition coil is abnormal, check or replace the high-tension wire, spark plug, etc.

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